Top 10 Dangerous Viruses in the world
Top 10 dangerous viruses are mentioned in the article. But before that what is virus? Virus is an infectious agent that can multiply in living cells of plants, animals, and bacteria. It was discovered in 1892 by Dmitry Ivanovsky. However, It varies in size and composition. Biological nature of viruses was identified in the fourth quarter of the 19th century. Moreover. virus comprises of genetic material i.e. DNA or RNA, encloses in a capsid (protein shell). It depends upon the host cell to complete their mode of action.
The first step in infection is the recognition of the host cell. Then to bind with the host cell’s membrane. After entering the host cell via endocytosis or by fusing with host cell membranes. Viruses use the host’s cell resources to make new viral proteins. Moreover, viral particles then assemble to leave the cell. Consequences of infection include diseases in living organisms. Recently a virus COVID-19 is causing death in the world.
Viruses are classified according to Baltimore System- based on the type of genetic material. And how they make mRNA- into seven groups. Transmission of viruses can be horizontal and vertical. Following are the top 10 dangerous viruses in the world. Because these viruses cause devastation in different regions of the world:
The deadliest global epidemic was the bubonic plague in the year 1346 to 1353. The mode of transmission is a bacterium Yersinia pestis carried by rats. It caused the death of one-third people of continental Europe and Asia. Symptoms include blood and pus seep out from swelling followed by fever, vomiting, and chills. The best way to avoid is wearing gloves in order not to have contact with skin and plague bacteria. Antibiotics such as doxycycline and streptomycin are use to treat plague.
2- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Another most dangerous virus in history is Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV causes AIDS. It is a sexually transmitted infection spread from mother to children during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. Almost 770,000 people died of HIV in the year 2018. Symptoms of Acute HIV include fever, diarrhea, cough, weight loss, and night sweat. While symptoms of chronic HIV include swollen lymph nodes, diarrhea, pneumonia, and shingles. Doctors should use separate gloves and syringes for every patient. Antiretroviral therapy is the main treatment for HIV.
Influenza virus is spread when infected people cough or sneeze. It cause death of 500,000 people during pandemic. Spanish flu in 1918 is considered as one of the worst pandemic cause the death of 20 to 40% of the world’s population. Recent news maker was H1N1 Swine flu with its first episode in 2009. Therefore, it is included in the list of the top 10 dangerous viruses in the world. Nothing can treat influenza except bed rest and intake of fluids. Wearing mask and frequent washing of hands can avoid the spread of this virus.
4- Ebola Virus
Ebola Virus is a fatal illness affecting humans and other primates. The average mortality rate due to the Ebola virus is around 50%. Ebola outbreak in recent decades 2014-16 in Africa was the worst outbreak since the virus discovered in 1976. Therefore, it is considered as on of the most dangerous viruses in the world. The virus spread by contact with body fluids of an infected person. Symptoms include fatigue, fever and there’s no vaccination. Avoid bush meat and contact with infected person to stay safe.
5- Marburg Virus
Marburg virus is a member of the filovirus family because of hemorrhagic fever caused by monkeys. Bats are also the host. The mortality rate is 90%. Symptoms include high fever, severe headache, severe watery diarrhea. Fatal cases have a form of bleeding and blood with vomit and feces. There is no treatment available for MVD. Hospital therapy include balancing between body fluids and electrolyte and maintaining oxygen status of body. The precautions include avoiding contact with blood, saliva, vomit and other body fluids of infected persons and wild animals.
Rabies caused by dog bites symptoms of rabies include madness, excessive salivation, hydrophobia, hallucinations, and agitations. Annually 55,000 deaths occur due to rabies with 95% deaths in Asia and Africa. Rabies are classified into furious rabies and Paralytic rabies. A series of shots can prevent the virus from thriving. Avoid contact with stray and wild animals to stay safe. Vaccination of pets can also reduce the risk.
Hantavirus gained attention in 1993 in the US and cause death only by shortness of breath. Early symptoms include fever, muscular pain, and fatigue. It is caused by deer mice and transmit via inhalation of feces or urine of deer mice. The mortality rate of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is 38%. Be aware of mouse dropping to stay safe from hantavirus. If the infection is diagnosed earlier. Patients can receive care including fluid replacement and oxygen therapy. Disinfectant can kill HPS.
Dengue is also a dangerous virus. Bite of infected mosquito-spread this virus. Almost 100 million people suffer symptoms each year according to the CDC report. Symptoms include fever, headache, and pain behind the eyes. It has no vaccine. According to WHO it sickens 50 to 100 million people in a year. Moreover, apply mosquito repellent to stay safe. In case of infection, use pain reliever and take rest.
9- Lassa fever Virus
Lassa fever Virus first outbreak in West Africa cause mortality rate from 15 to 50%. symptoms include hemorrhagic fever. Virus is transmitted via air or exposure to urine of infected Mastomys natalensis in food or water. However, its lasting symptom is deafness. There is no vaccine for humans. Ribavirin, an antiviral drug is the best treatment for this infection. Hence, it is listed among dangerous viruses.
10- COVID-19- Dangerous Virus
COVID-19 also known as Corona Virus is causing death nowadays in every part of the world. It was first detected at Wuhan, China in 2019. Scientist are trying to prepare Coronavirus vaccine. Read the symptoms and precautions. The only precaution is to wash your hands and wear mask. are the only treatment available.
Thus the list of top 10 dangerous viruses in the world has ended. But this list does’t include all the virus. There are many other viruses that are fatal to human. However, viruses can be treated with the vaccination. Some viral infections resolve without any treatment. While medications also work directly on viruses known as antiviral medications. They work by inhibiting the production of viral DNA and also preventing virus to enter the host cell. The best way to stay safe is prevention because it is better than cure.
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