The Ottoman Empire (Part 4)

The Ottoman Empire (Part 4)

Continuing the ottoman empire series, here we are approaching to Ottoman empire part 4. Previously, we came to know, how did this empire was built up? How do the Ottoman feed his father’s dream? And how Orhan Ghazi turned this dream into a state. In the ottoman empire part 3, we discussed the major issues of stability for the newly emerged state.

Moreover, we also have an overview of how did Orhan Ghazi stabilize the state. After defeating the Byzantine forces Orhan Ghazi got a strategic power in the zone. After the defeat of the Byzantine empire by Orhan Ghazi, the Roman general approached the Ottoman emperor. In the Ottoman series part 4, we will know how did Orhan Ghazi respond to friendship offer.


Orhan Ghazi and Kantakouzenos – the Ottoman empire part 4

            Roman general Kantakouzenos offered Sultan Orhan with friendship. Besides, he also promised many attractive benefits to Sultan. However, he wanted him to help with getting over the Byzantine empire. Moreover, the general also promised to let her daughter get married to Orhan Ghazi. On the other hand, the sultan accepted his offer. Soon, it was time to show how much this alliance is strong.

Roman emperor died in 1341 and his 9-year-old son John Palaiologos was appointed as the new emperor. However, this provided an opportunity to Kantakouzenos and he revolted against the new emperor. Therefore, it was the time when Sultan Orhan has to prove his friendship. Kantakouzenos threaten his state to make him as the co-emperor. The nine years old emperor was not mature enough to understand the reason. But, his mother understands the reason behind this revolt. Therefore, she sought help from another Turk state: the Karasi empire. However, Karasids were not able to help her sufficiently.

Pieces of Byzantine empire – Ottoman empire part 4

This scenario started a civil war in the Roman empire. Herein, the Ottoman empire’s Turks and Kantakouzenos were on the same side. While, on the other side the Roman empire, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Karasids were together. Therefore, after 6-years of the civil war, the Kantakouzenos was appointed as co-emperor for the Romans. However, this civil war broke up the Byzantine empire into pieces.

Serbia declared independence, Bulgaria captured vast areas of the Byzantine empire. While the Byzantine empire was limited to Constantinople and some coastal areas. This war provided benefits to the Ottoman empire that their influence penetrated in the Byzantine empire. Moreover, the co-emperor of the roman empire was the father in law of sultan Orhan Ghazi. This was a big success for Ottomans and also they showed a dominance of the second Turk Karasids empire. Karasi empire subdued before the ottomans and gradually become part of the Ottoman empire. However, the reason was they have no powerful ally left behind with them.

Ottoman empire and the Europe – Ottoman empire part 4

           The submission of the Karasi empire in the Ottoman Empire brought the Ottomans near to Dardanelles. This part of the sea was the way for them to enter Europe. Because there were only two ways to enter Europe from Anatolia. In the Ottoman empire part 4, we will also know about these pathways. One way was to conquer the most powerful fort of the roman empire: Constantinople. While the other way was to cross the sea from Dardanelles.The 1st pathway was much difficult and tough to crossover. However, to enter Europe and conquer it was the biggest dream for Turks. Moreover, this was the dream of Ottoman Ghazi the founder of the Ottoman empire to conquer Europe.

The Ottoman Turks were at the corner of their dream. However, there was a barrier (sea) on their way of the dream. On the other hand, the powerful army of Europe was also not allowing them to cross the sea. The nature plans are way away from thinking of human beings. Therefore, a similar action is taken palace naturally. In the mid 14th century,  Kantakouzenos tried to appoint his son as the emperor of the roman empire. This resulted in a civil war, and Kantakouzenos asked for help from Sultan Orhan.

However, Orhan Ghazi placed a condition to help the Kantakouzenos this time. The sultan asked them to let him cross the sea and make a check post on the other side of the sea. He chooses a place in Europe called Gallipoli. Kantakouzenos was highly in need of Orhan’s help. Moreover, he also needs this help in Europe. So, he gets agree and let the Ottomans across the sea. And, now Ottomans entered in Europe without shedding a single drop of blood.

Kantakouzenos holds the power– Ottoman empire part 4

            Obtaining help from Sultan Orhan let the Kantakouzenos in power. He muscled the revolt against his state with the help of the Ottoman Turks. However, letting the Turks enter in Europe also produced a problem for Kantakouzenos as well. According to Turk’s tradition, Turks were found to have Gaza (fight against Christians). Therefore, the fight for attaining Christian’s land as in the form of Jihad. The people involved in this Ghaza were known as Ghazi, that’s why the Turk sultans were called as ghazi.

Ottomans in Europe– Ottoman empire part 4

            Suleman Shah the Son of Orhan Ghazi was sent to Gallipoli by the sultan. He rebuilt the zone stronger than before. He started attacking roman forts in Europe. Moreover, he started an attack on Threes city. Therefore, a danger was observed by the roman empire. Moreover, the Turks were getting strong on either side of the Byzantine empire. Although, this credit was with  Kantakouzenos. The Roman start yelling at Kantakouzenos and forced him to fight against the Ottoman empire’s army.

Kantakouzenos strongly protested to Sultan Orhan against Suleman’s conquests. He sent a letter to Sultan Orhan, either call his army back or stop attacking Roman areas. The sultan replied that his son will stop attacking the Roman empire. But, the conquered areas will not be given back to the Romans. So the Gallipoli and East of Threes remained the part of the Ottoman state. This area is still under the part of Turkey. However, Kantakouzenos was removed as emperor by the Romans. Therefore, the new emperor was an extreme enemy of Sultan Orhan rather than Kantakouzenos. After the end of the Kantakouzenos empire, the Sultan Orhan also died in 1362. But, till that he changed a small state into a powerful huge state that he owned from his father Ottoman Ghazi.


            In the Ottoman empire part 4, we have discussed the Sultan Orhan and his state. In the next part (Part 5) we will discuss how the state flourishes further. What challenges were faced in the next era? And how did the Ottoman empire gets over the Byzantine empire? We will appreciate your comments and suggestions. Meanwhile, if you want to know about the dream of state read Part 1, part 2 and part 3.

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