Salah ud din Ayyubi: The Warrior of Islam
History of Salahuddin Ayyubi
Sultan Salah ud din Ayyubi AKA “Saladin” was a brave, courageous and brilliant Islamic leader of the 12 century. He is also known as ” The Holy Warrior ” for his outstanding struggle against the crusaders and eventually capturing Jerusalem from the Crusaders. Salahuddin was born in 1137 in Tikrit (a city of Iraq now). He was a Sunni Muslim of Kurdish descent.
Salahuddin was also the first ‘Sultan’ of Syria and Egypt and founder of the Ayyubid Empire. He had a firm belief in Islamic values, by holding on to these values generously, he achieved something only very few had attained before him. At the full extent of his power, his empire included Syria, Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, Yemen, Hejaz and some parts of North Africa.
Salah ud din: Birth, Childhood and Education
Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi was born on the night when his father Ayyub and his uncle Asad-ad-Din Shirukh, along with their family exiled from Tikrit. The reason for exile was his uncle (Shirukh) had killed a man and that offended one of the governors (Behroz) of the city. Therefore, he banished his family out of the region.
His father moved to the city of Mosul and resided there till Salahuddin got a little older. His father and uncle served as respected commanders in the service of Atabeg Zengi. Therefore, his father relocated to Syria as Baalbek assigned to him. Salahuddin also moved there and receive his education under his wing. He learned his morals, values, manners and signs of good fortune started showing up in his character.
Nur-ad-Din Zengi took him under his wing, advanced him, and made him a favorite intimate. His religious beliefs were simple and clear, sultan heart filled with the love of God. He received his education from leading men of religion learning and respected jurisconsults.
Early Operations of Salah ud din Ayyubi
The first expedition of Salah ud din Ayyubi was with his uncle Shirukh. The reason for this was that a man named Dirgham went against Shawar, the vizier of the Egyptians. Dirgham gathered a lot of troops that Shawar was unable to resist. He was then defeated and exiled from Cairo. Dirgham killed his sons, seized Cairo, and took his vizierate. When Shawar expelled from Cairo he attended upon Nur-ad-Din Zengi and requested for his aid and support. Thus, Nur-ad-Din gave orders to Shirukh for aiding Shawar.
When Shawar got reinstated as vizier by the Fatimid Caliph, he wrote a letter to Shirukh to withdraw his army from Egypt. Shirukh refused that in his response letter to Shawar. Shawar then sent him 30,000 gold dinars but to leave the country.
Shirukh again refused by saying that it’s Nur-ad-Din’s order to stay and as by the agreement, Nur-ad-Din was promised one-third of the grain revenues of Egypt. In this expedition, the role of Salah ud din was minor, Shirukh only ordered him to collect reserves from Belbeis, before it’s sieged by forces of crusaders and troops of Shawar.
Salahuddin played a vital role here, by luring the franks into a trap by a feigned retreat. Consequently, it reported that it was an order from Shirukh to Salahuddin. “The franks certainly had initial success yet the flanking hills were too steep and sandy for their horses”. Hugh of Caesarea also captured while attacking Saladin’s force. There was scattered fighting in small valleys to the south of the position of Muslims. Then the Muslim centre returned to the attack. Salahuddin joined them from behind. The combat resulted in Zengid’s victory; it is also considered as one of the most remarkable achievements in recorded history.
Salah ud din Ayyubi in Egypt:
Vizierate of Egypt:
Shirukh was in a struggle of power with Shawar and Amalric in Egypt. In 1169, Shawar perished, Shirukh died after three months of holding his office. After Shirukh, the authority entrusted to Salah ud din Ayyubi. His biographer (Baha-al-Din Ibn Shaddad) quotes that Salahuddin donned the garments of seriousness and pious endeavour. He also stated that Salahuddin said, “After God had enabled me to gain Egypt, I understood that he planned the conquest of the coast because he planted that idea in my mind”. From the time his position got established, he never stopped to launch raids on Franks in their districts. He overwhelmed people with such benefits and gifts that were seen never in history.
When the franks learned that Salahudin has now established a strong position in Egypt, they perceived that now their lands are unsafe and Sultan will demolish their territories due to the power he had acquired. So, the Franks and Byzantines united against Sultan Salahuddin to attack Egypt and come by their rule over there. It then decided to aim for Damietta first because having control over there would result in having control over land and the sea.
When Sultan came to know about the plan of Franks and Byzantines, he sent equestrian, arms, and weapons to the town to confirm its defence. Eventually, Franks attacked Damietta and carried weighty ambushes and attacks. Salahuddin restrained them externally, his troops of the city struggled. God aided the Muslims, and with his support, the victory of his religion happened. A large number of Franks perished, the rest of them decided to save their heads and retreated discouraged and lost. By the Grace of Almighty, the land was recovered and Salahuddin’s position firmly established.
After that, he started giving posts of high orders to his family members. He also ordered the construction of schools of Maliki sect and Shafi’i sect.
Salah ud din Ayyubi- Sultan of Egypt:
Nur-ad-Din wrote to Salahuddin Ayyubi in 1171, telling him to establish Abbasid caliphate in Egypt. Salahuddin waited two months to coordinate his plans. He also consulted A Shafi’i Faqih about the legal position of this matter. For this matter, several Egyptian Emirs killed but Al-Adid (the Abbasid caliph) told that it was due to their rebel towards him. Al-Adid then fell ill during his illness he asked Salahuddin to visit him so that he could request him to take care of his children. Salahuddin declined because of his fear of betrayal against the Abbasids. However, he regretted his decision after knowing the reason for the request for the visit. Al-Adid died on September 13, five days later Al-Mustadi was pronounced as the caliph.
During the summer of 1173, preparation of siege around Aswan by Nubian forces along with a company of Armenian refugees reported. The Emir of the city asked help from Salahuddin and was provided backup under the command of Turan Shah, Salahuddin’s brother. Eventually, Nubians turned away, but they came back again. And this time Egyptian soldiers marched further from Aswan. They captured the Nubian’s area “Ibrim”.
On 31st July 1173, Sultan’s father Ayyub was injured in a horse accident he then later died due to that injury. In 1174, Sultan Salahuddin dispatched Turan Shah to conquer Yemen to distribute it and its port Aden to the Ayyubid Empire.
Conquest of Syria:
Nur-ad-Din’s death also happened due to quinsy which doctors couldn’t treat. His 11-year-old son as-Salih Ismail al-Malik became his successor. Nur-ad-Din’s death gave Salahuddin political independence in the region. Sultan’s biographer reports that Sultan said: “We had heard that Nur-ad-Din might attack us in Egypt. Several of our comrades advised that he should openly resist, his authority rejected, and his army should meet in battle. I alone disagreed with them.” The reason behind Nur-ad-Din’s will to attack Egypt was that he was assuming that after having a stronghold in Egypt, Salahuddin has not remained that much loyal. And Salahuddin wants to increase his borders.
When As-Salih was taken out to Aleppo, the Emir of the city Gumushtigin took his guardianship. Gumushtigin prepared to dismount his rivals in Syria and Jazira (upper Mesopotamia) starting with Damascus. He asked help from the Emir of Mosul even so he declined and told them to ask help from Salahuddin who agreed to comply. Then he chose 700 equestrians and rode through al-Kerak and reached Bosra. He arrived in Damascus and stayed in the old house of his father (Ayyub).
The commander of Citadel of Damascus refused to surrender at first, but after sieging of the Citadel by Salahuddin’s brother Tuughtakin ibn Ayyub he opened the gates.
Salah ud din Ayyubi: Operations in Syria:
After making his brother the Governor of Damascus he then went ahead to turn down other cities that were independent after Nur-ad-Din’s death such as Hama and Homs. Then Salahuddin moved towards north reaching Aleppo and besieged it. Al-Salih was brought out of the castle and made to address the people of Aleppo not to surrender. He appealed the people for the protection and came to tears during his speech. According to Ibn-al Tayy, “the people fell under his spell.” People of Aleppo were experienced fighters, and thus they made a habit attacking every besieger when they get a chance.
The emirs of Al-Salih were not content with having Salahuddin around them. So they tried to cope with this once and for all. The contacted with Rasheed-ad-Din Sinan to assassinate Salahuddin. 13 Assassin recruited for the task. They approached the tent where Sultan had camped, but were recognized and killed. Sultan was saved by his mamluks and emirs. Several people were perishing including Khumartekeen (lord of Bu Qubais). Salahuddin left Aleppo on 26th January 1175 and later approached Homs (to capture its fortress which not captured before but only the city was) but retreated. He had heard of relief forces sent from Saif al-Din, which he captured in March of 1175 after facing much firm opposition from his opponents.
Sultan of Egypt and Syria
Saif al-Din was deeply disturbed by the increasing influence of Salahuddin Ayyubi in the region. He gathered a massive army and sent it to Aleppo where they were waiting impatiently. Together the Armies of Aleppo and Mosul marched towards Hama. Salahuddin was totally outnumbered, so at first, he tried to negotiate but his request for setting terms was declined. They were thinking that perhaps their aim can only be achieved at full extent by defeating him in the battle. But destiny was holding something else.
When the Saif al-Din’s army reached the battlefield they found themselves surrounded by Salahuddin Ayyubi’s troops. Ayyubid veterans crushed them as this battle turned out to be a significant victory for Salahuddin Ayyubi. Many of them took prisoners as Salahuddin followed Zengids (Saif al-Din was a Zengid) to gates of Aleppo. He forced the emirs and advisors of al-Salih accept his authority over Damascus, Homs, Hama and other different cities and towns outside Aleppo.
After the victory against the Zengids, Salah uddin announced himself as the king and removed the name of al-Salih from the Islamic coinage and Friday Khutbah. Abbasid Caliph also welcomed him in Baghdad, declaring him the “Sultan of Egypt and Syria“. However, this battle was not able to stop the struggle for power among Ayyubids and the Zengids. Salahuddin mustered a large number of reinforcements from Egypt while Saif al-Din was recruiting troops from Diyarbakir and Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia).
At Sultan’s mound, both armies collided and initially, Saif’s army was able to break up Sultan’s left-wing however when Sultan himself attacked the head of the Zengid guard, the Zengid army took fright. Many officers of Saif were slain and arrested. Although the prisoners were freed and given gifts. The loot obtained from the battle was distributed among soldiers.
Salah ud din Journey towards Aleppo
Salah uddin Ayyubi continued his journey towards Aleppo. On the way, his army captured Buza’a and Manbij (a city in north-east of Aleppo). He then marched further to siege the fortress of A’zaz, during one of those days when Salahuddin was resting in one of his military commanders. An assassin rushed towards him with a dagger and tried to kill him. But Salahuddin managed to grab his hand, only his gambeson torn out. The assassin was killed soon. Salahuddin accused Gumushtugin to be responsible for this event and hence increased the preparation for the siege.
A’zaz captured on 21st June. Salahuddin then rushed towards Aleppo to be fair Gumushtugin. His strikes were opposed again, but this time he managed to sign a peace treaty and alliance with Aleppo. In which Gumushtugin and al-Salih were able to hold onto Aleppo, but they had to recognize the rule of Sultan over all his conquered domains. All the emirs of Mardin (a city of south-eastern turkey), Keyfa and all the other Muslim towns and districts also accepted Salahuddin Ayyubi as the “Sultan of Syria”.
Arrival in Cairo and Raids in Palestine:
Salahuddin Ayyubi came back to Damascus and let his Syrian soldiers go home. He left Turan Shah to take command of Syria he then went back to Egypt only with his followers. He reached Cairo on 22nd September. Being away from Egypt for almost two years, there were a lot of matters to take care. He started construction in Cairo in which prominent was the reconstruction of Citadel of Cairo. BirYusuf (Joseph’s Well) constructed on his command. Salahuddin stayed in Egypt and carried out much other building and construction work such as the establishment of some Madrasas.
In November 1177, it reported that Crusaders had done forays in the territory of Damascus, the truce was not worth to carry on. Therefore, Sultan carried out a raid in Palestine. The Crusaders sent a large chunk of their army towards the west of Aleppo to besiege the fortress of Harem (a Syrian city), so southern Palestine was pretty much empty or rather defend-less. Salahuddin saw this as an opportunity and marched to Ascalon (now a southern district of Israel). Ayyubid army further moved ahead to raid the country-side, capture Ramla and Lod (now cities of Israel) and expanded themselves as far as the gates of Jerusalem.
Defeated the Ayyubids
On 25 November, Salahuddin and his troops were caught off guard at Ramla in the battle of Montgisard when a large part of Ayyubid army was away. Before the Army could align itself, the Templars took the Ayyubis down. When the Sultan saw that the defeat was predestined he retreated with a small number of remaining soldiers towards Egypt.
Salah ud din was not discouraged by his defeat, and he prepared himself to fight the crusaders again. A few clashes occurred between his generals and Crusaders in the spring of 1178. However, this time his troops won over the crusaders and came back with spoils and prisoners. Sultan spent the rest of the year in Syria without any engagement.
In April 1179, the Crusaders led by King Baldwin didn’t expect any resistance and waited to attack the herders grazing their animals in surprise at the east of Golan. But Sultan’s intelligence had already reported him about their plan about foraying into Syria. Sultan ordered Farrukh Shah to protect the Damascus border and to give him signal as he saw the sign of attack, after which Sultan would march out. Baldwin proceeded so carelessly, therefore, his troops were easily defeated by the Ayyubids.
The Subjugation of Mesopotamia:
In the summer of 1179, Baldwin decided to strengthen a passage over the Jordan river called Jacob’s Ford. Salahuddin offered 100,000 gold pieces to abandon the project, but he declined it. He then decided to destroy the fortress. As the crusaders hurried down to attack the Muslims, they lost their order, and their infantry fell behind. Their success was only in the beginning, and because of pursuing Muslims too far, they got scattered. Sultan took advantage of this opportunity and round up his troops around crusaders and crushed them. He further charged towards besieging the fortress which was captured on 30th August 1179.
In June 1181, Saif-al-Din passed away, and his brother Izz-al-Din took charge of the Mosul. On December 4, al-Salih also died in Aleppo. Before his death, he made his chief commanders swear an oath to be loyal to Izz al-Din because he was the only Zengid leader who was strong enough to oppose Salahuddin.
On 11th May 1182, Salah ud din Ayyubi with half of his soldiers and many civilians left Cairo and headed towards Syria. He knew that the Crusader army would obstruct his way on the borderline, so he took the desert route to avoid engagement. Having no opposition, he demolished the land of Montreal while Baldwin’s forces watched that happen without interfering. Sultan reached Damascus in June. After arriving there, he learned that Farrukh Shah had captured Habis Jaldik (a fortress of great importance to the Crusaders). Salahuddin then sent Farrukh Shah to conquer Kawakib-al-Hawa. In August, Ayyubids instigated both marine and ground attacks to subjugate Beirut (now the capital of Lebanon). The invasion was inclining towards failure, so Salahuddin declined the operation and directed his attention towards the matters of Mesopotamia.
Salahuddin and Zengids
The Emir of Harran, “Kukbary” sent an invite to Salah ud din to take hold of Jazira making upper Mesopotamia. He accepted the invitation, and then the truce between Salahuddin and Zengids ended officially.
When he reached Bira, Kukbary and Nur-ad-Din of Hisn Kayfa joined him, and together their forces conquered the cities and towns of Jazira, one after another. First one was Edessa then Saruj, Raqqa and so on. Leaving Raqqa, he then headed to capture Al-Fudain, Al-Husain, Maksim, Durain and Khabur.
He then headed towards Nusaybin which showed no opposition and surrendered. During these victories, Salahuddin was reported that the Crusaders are attacking the villages in Damascus. At the same time, Izz-ad-Din raided Sultan’s cities from the north and the east and capturing cities such as Manbij, Saru, Buza’a and al-Karzain. He also destroyed the citadel of A’zaz so that Ayyubids could not use it if they were to conquer it in future.
Salah ud din Ayyubi- Control Over Aleppo:
Salah ud din Ayyubi returned his attention towards Aleppo by dispatching his brother Tajal-Muluk to capture Tell Khalid. A siege was to set up, but the governor of Tell Khalid surrendered when Sultan arrived himself before the Siege could take place. Salah ud din then departed for the capture of Ain Tib in the north, but its possession gained just when his forces were towards there, this allowed him to come back quickly. On May 21, he bivouacked outside the city of Aleppo and positioned himself to the east of the citadel. He also positioned his men very close rather dangerously close to the town by hoping that it might lead to early success.
Zangi did not resist for long and surrendered. He was also not popular among his people and possessions. He wished to return to Sinjar, the city he previously governed. Terms of exchange took place, and Zangi handed over Aleppo to Salahuddin, and in return, he gained control of Sinjar, Nusaybin and Raqqa.
Sultan’s flag raised
On 12th June Aleppo was officially handed over to Salahuddin Ayyubi. People of Aleppo were unaware of the truce and negotiations and were taken by surprise when Sultan’s flag raised over the citadel. He replaced Hanafi administration with Shafi’i courts, by making a promise that he would not interfere with the religious leaders of the city.
After staying one night in Aleppo’s citadel, he advanced to Harim near the Antioch which was held by the Crusaders. Harim was in the hold of a minor Mamluk, “Shurak”. In exchange for Harim, Salahuddin offered him the city of Busra and other properties of Damascus. But when Shurak asked for more than that, his forces evicted him out. He was arrested by Taqi al-Din (the deputy of Salahuddin) on the allegations of his planning to turn over Harim to Bohemond III of Antioch. After his surrender, Salahuddin started preparation for the defence of Harim from the Crusaders. Sultan negotiated a truce with Bohemond in return for Muslim Prisoners. He then handed over A’zaz to Alam ad-Din Suleiman (an emir of Aleppo who joined up with Sultan) and Aleppo to Saif ad-Din al-Yazkuj (a former mamluk of Shirukh).
Challenges in Mosul:
As Salah ud din reached Mosul, he had to face a huge obstacle of taking over such a large city. The Zengids appealed to the Abbasid caliph, An-Nasir whose viziers were in favour of them. The caliph assigned a high-ranking religious figure to settle the dispute between them. But Izz ad-Din refused to accept the terms of Salahuddin because he did not consider him generous. Salahuddin then besieged the city right away.
After a few minor assaults and reaching a point of stalemate during the Siege, Sultan then wanted to withdraw from the siege. But he also wanted to save his reputation and still want to hold some military pressure over the city. Therefore, he decided to attack Sinjar, and it surrendered after a 15-day siege on 30th December. Salahuddin’s troops lost their discipline on entering the city and ravaged it. Salahuddin was only able to save the governor and some of his officers. He sent them to Mosul.
Salah ud din Ayyubi: Coast of Red Sea
On 2nd March, Al-Adil wrote to Salahuddin from Egypt. Raynald de Chatillon had sent ships to raid towns at the coast of Red Sea. It was not an attempt to increase the influence of Crusaders in the sea but rather a violent strive.
From Salahuddin’s point of view, the struggle against Mosul was going well. But his Army was shrinking Tabi al-DIn went back with his men to Hama, and Nasir al-Din Muhammad had left with his forces. However, this encouraged Izz al-Din and his allies to take offence. At the beginning of April Salah ud din and Taqi al-Din gathered their troops to proceed against the coalition of Izz al-DIn. Till late April, after three days of fighting, Diyarbakir was captured by the Ayyubids. Salahuddin handed over the city to Nur-ad-Din and latter took the oath of allegiance to Salahuddin, promising that he would help Salah ud din in any order to fight with the Crusaders.
Letter to Abbasid Caliph
Salah ud din tried to gain some support of Abbasid Caliph against Izz ad-DIn by writing him a letter. In that letter, he requested a document that would give him a legal basis to take over the lands and territories of Mosul. Salahuddin also tried to convince caliph about the behaviour of Zengids. While he was conquering the lands of Yemen and Egypt under the Caliphate flag the Zengids were boldly supporting Seljuks (the rivals of Abbasids). They came to the caliph only in need. He also blamed Izz ad-Din’s forces for disturbing Muslims in their ‘Holy War’ against the Crusaders. He said that not only they are not willing to fight but are also preventing others who want to. Moreover, he promised the caliph that if Mosul was handed over to him, it would result in the capture of Jerusalem, Georgia, Constantinople and lands of Almohad in the west.
Salahuddin highlighted that this will only happen with the will of God, and he won’t ask for any financial or military support. Instead, he would capture the lands of Tirkit, Khuzestan, Daquq, Oman and hand them over to the caliph.
Battles Against Crusaders:
On 29th September 1182, Salahuddin went across the Jordan River aiming to attack Beisan, but the city was found empty. The next day, they moved westwards to Karak and Shaubak where they obstructed the reinforcements of the Frankish Army and took some prisoners. In the meantime, the man Frankish force under the command of Guy of Lusignan progressed al-Fula from Sepphoris after hearing the news that Salahuddin is at Baisan. Salahuddin dispatched a squad of 500 men to disturb them while he aligned the rest of the force in “battle order”. When the Crusader army made their move, surprisingly Muslim Forces came down from the river of Ain-Jalut instead of giving themselves into battle. Franks now established themselves at Ain Jalut with mountains at their backs. Salahuddin’s force captured all the unguarded territory they could reach such as Forbelet (Taiyiba) and Harod Valley. After that:
Salahuddin Ayyubi besieged Raynald of Chatillon’s fortress in Kerak in 1183 and 1184. The reason for this was Reynald’s continuous assaults on Muslims trading and pilgrim routes on the Red Sea. Reynald responded by a raid on a caravan of pilgrims of Hajj in 1185.
- A peace treaty signed between Izz-ad-Din and Sultan in March 1186.
- In July 1187 he captured most of the territory of Jerusalem.
Battle of Hattin:
On 4th July 1187, Salahuddin encountered the Guy of Lusignan, King Consort of Jerusalem and Raymond III of Tripoli and their combined forces at Hattin. Thus, alone Frankish force was obliterated by Muslims. That was a significant disaster for Crusaders and a turning point within the history of crusades. Raynold captured, and Salahuddin personally took responsibility for his execution. Raynold had captured a caravan of Muslims, and when they pleaded for peace, he insulted the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). After that, he tortured the prisoners and killed some of them. Later, Guy of Lusignan also captured at this time. After seeing the execution of Raynald, Guy feared that he should be treated the same way. But Salahuddin spared his life by saying that “it is not won’t of kings to kill kings, but that man had transgressed all the bounds, and therefore did I treat him thus.”
The Capture of Jerusalem:
Salah ud din Ayuubi had conquered almost every city of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He preferred to take hold of Jerusalem peacefully and without any bloodshed. For this, he offered very munificent terms, but the ones inside refused to accept the terms and leave their Holy city. After a siege on Friday 2nd October 1187, Jerusalem capitulated to Salahuddin’s Army. Before the siege, Salahuddin was hesitant to promise a quarter to the inhabitants of Jerusalem in the terms. Balian of Ibelin threatened to kill all the Muslim Hostages and knock down all the Holy Shrines of Muslims including Al-Aqsa Mosque. The conditions were accepted after Sultan had consulted with his council. Relatively low ransom for the time was to be paid for every citizen of the city among women and children. Regardless of the wishes of his treasures, Salahuddin let many poor citizens leave who could not afford to pay.
Strategically it would have made more sense to capture Tyre (a city at the coast of Lebanon) first, but Salahuddin preferred to capture Jerusalem first because of its religious importance. Conrad of Montferrat held out against two sieges from Salah ud din. Consequently, Sultan withdrew from there. In 1888, Guy of Lusignan was released and was allowed to go back to his wife, Queen Sybilla. They looked for a way to regain Tyre but were not allowed to enter the city by Conrad, who did not acknowledge Guy as king. Guy then did a counter-attack to Salahuddin by besieging Acre, which later led to the “Third Crusade”.
The Third Crusade:
Hattin and the capture of Jerusalem gave rise to The Third Crusade (1189-1192), funded from England by a special “Saladin tithe”. Richard I, the King of England led Guy’s siege in Acre. He conquered the city and executed thousands of Muslim prisoners, including women and children.
- On 7th September 1191, Salahuddin got involved in the Battle of Arsuf with King Richard. Salahuddin’s forces endured heavy losses and eventually withdrew. Thus, after the battle of Arsuf King Richard proceeded and captured Jaffa, restoring its defences.In
- October 1191, Richard started restoring the inland castles beyond Jaffa in arrangements for capturing Jerusalem.
- In January 1192, his armies captured Beit Naba, only 12 miles away from Jerusalem but pulled themselves back without attacking the Holy City. Richard then headed to Ascalon and restored its fortifications.
Saladin then tried to threaten Richard by besieging Jaffa and almost capturing it, but Richard arrived after a few days and defeated Salahuddin in a battle outside the city.
The Battle of Jaffa was the last military confrontation of The Third Crusade. After Richard reoccupied Jaffa, terms were discussed. At last, Richard agreed to dismantle the fortifications of Ascalon, while Salah ud din Ayyubi allowed Christians to enter Jerusalem as unarmed Pilgrims. Salahuddin’s kingdom remained at peace with all the Crusader states until the following three years.
Salah ud din Ayyubi- Death and Legacy:
Sultan Salah ud din Ayyubi died of a fever in 1193, at Damascus a while after the death of King Richard. At the time of his death, only one piece of gold and forty pieces of silver was in his possessions. He had given away all of his wealth to the poor people while keeping nothing for himself. He is buried in a mausoleum in the garden of Umayyad Mosque of Damascus, Syria.
Salahuddin Ayyubi is honoured and respected in Europe as same as in the Muslim world. His opponents, including King Richard, admired him and acknowledged his generosity. History of Salahuddin Ayyubi set a faithful example of a Muslim leader and conqueror who was wise, intelligent and emphatic. At the same time knew his worth and always put God’s will above his own.
- Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1906) by Lane-Poole, Stanley
- The Rare and Excellent History of Saladin (2002) by Bahā’ al-Dīn Ibn Shaddād
- Saladin: the Politics of the Holy War (1982) by Lyons, M. C.; Jackson, D. E. P.
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