History of Tipu Sultan- Tiger of Mysore
History of Tipu Sultan describes that he was a great ruler, warrior, and a tremendous military hero. He is an impressive personality in Muslim history. He made marvellous progress in the field of industry, road development, land revenue system, and many more. Moreover, he also introduced the new coinage, lunisolar calendar, and several new laws. Moreover, he had a great passion for reading books, and his library consists of 2000 books. In this article, we are sharing a brief history of Tipu Sultan. Read till the end to explore the who was Tipu Sultan.
The astonishing personality of Tipu Sultan
History of Tipu Sultan shares different names of tipu including, Tipu Sultan, Tippoo Sahib, and the Tiger of Mysore. He was an Indian ruler. England public considers him a vicious tyrant whereas the Indians think that he was a freedom fighter. Tipu Sultan was a small, rounded face man and had a black moustache. His clothes were designed with glitters with jewels. Tipu has a brave, forceful, warful, and vigorous personality.
He was commonly named as Tiger of Mysore and adopted this animal (tiger) as the symbol bravery of his rule. The story behind this title is that Tipu went for hunting in the forest with his French friend. They faced a tiger in the forest. Tiger attacked the French man first and killed him. Sultan’s gun was not working. The tiger jumped on Tipu and his dagger fell. Tipu reaches the dagger and killed the tiger. This incident gave Tipu Sultan the title of “The Tiger of Mysore”.
Tipu Sultan Biography
Tipu sultan was born on 10th December 1750. His father’s name was Haider Ali and his mother was Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa. Haider Ali was a ruler of an independent state of Mysore in India. Tipu was named as Fateh Ali. Moreover, the real name of Tipu Sultan was Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Shahab. Time flew and soon Haider Ali becomes the ruler of Mysore in 1761. Haider has a good political alliance with French. Tipu availed this golden change and learned the military strategies and tactics from the French. He studied shooting, swordsmanship, and riding from the best tutors of that time. A high military officer of Haider’s Army named Ghazi Khan taught the military education and skills to Tipu Sultan. This training made him a great leader and a general of History.
In 1766, he joined his father in the invasion of Malabar. Tipu Sultan was 15 years old but he performed very well. With the force of two to three thousand people, he captured the Malabar chief’s family. The successful invasion of Tipu made the chief to surrender in front of Haider Ali.
Tipu as a Ruler of Maysor
In 1782, Haider Ali died due to cancer, and Tipu Sultan became the Ruler of Maysor. Under the leadership of Haider Ali, Tipu Sultan participated in two wars, the First Anglo Mysore and the Second Anglo Mysore War and his victory was memorable. He was well-known about the threat of British forces who want to rule India at that time. Therefore, he made progress in the military section and used Mysorean rockets during the Second Anglo Mysore War.
Administeration of Tipu Sultan
History of Tipu Sultan Administration shown great progress as he introduced rockets, new coinage, new calendar, and seven new government departments.
- Mysorean missiles were iron rockets embedded sword in them. Rockets were launched from a distance towards the enemy and swords kill them. Such missiles gain popularity in Europe due to the great coverage and destructive capacity. In 1801, these rockets were sent to England in the Royal Arsenal lab. And after 4 years, in 1805, using the technology of Tipu Sultan and his father, Royal Arsenal prepared an advanced form of rockets. British Troops used these Congreve Rockets and won many battles including Napoleonic Wars and Battle of Baltimore.
- Tipu Sultan also introduced a Navy battleship. He ordered the copper bottoms ships that have enhanced longevity.
- He was the founder of the construction of Kannambadi Dam on Kaveri River. But the construction wasn’t made done. The dam was build later and opened in 1938. It was a great source of drinking water for the community of Mysore and Bangalore.
- Tipu also took an initiative for the silk industry.
- He is considered as the pioneer of road construction, as he connected different cities with roads.
Tipu Sultan was facing threats from Marathas therefore he wanted correspondence with Zaman Shah Durrani, who was the ruler of the Afghan Durrani Empire. So that they could defeat the British and Marathas. Initially, Zaman Shah approved to support Tipu Sultan. But the Persian attack on Afghanistan’s Western border. diverted its forces, and hence he didn’t help Tipu.
The history of Tipu Sultan describes that he also asked for support from Ottoman Empire against British East India Company. Tipu asked the Ottoman Sultan to send some military experts and troops. Moreover, he requested them to secure the Islamic shrines (Makkah, Karbala, Madina, and Najaf).
Read more: THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (PART I)
But the Tipu’s ambassadors returned home with gifts from Ottoman and no help. Ottomans were not able to help Tipu because they were in crisis and recovering from the Austro-Ottoman War. Moreover, a new Russian Empire conflict occurs and Ottoman needed British association to keep off Russians. However, Sultan keeps supporting the Turk Ottoman Empire until his late battle in 1799.
Sultan has a good relationship with Persia and Oman as well as France.
Social and Religious Policies
- Tipu Sultan introduced as a judicial system. He appointed judges for Muslims as well as Hindus. Qazi and Pandit in each province and upper courts for appropriate judgments.
- He strictly prohibited the Usage of liquor and prostitution in the administration.
- Moreover, he restricted the Polyandry in Kerala and ordered the women to cover their bodies.
Economy and Coinage
Tipu Sultan introduced new coinage in the kingdom. He announced a set of new Persian names for the various denominations that were shown on the gold, silver, and copper coins. The names were:
Copper coins were Qutb (1/8 paisa), Akhtar (1/4 paisa), Bahram (1/2 paisa), Zohra (1 paisa), Othmani, or Mushtari (double-paisa). Silver coins were Khizri (1/32 rupee), Kazimi (1/16 rupee), Ja’fari (1/8 rupee), Bâqiri (1/4 rupee) Abidi (1/2 rupee), Imami for the rupee, Haidari (double-rupee). Gold coins were Faruqi (pagoda), Sadîqi (double-pagoda), Ahmadi (four-pagoda).
Infidelity Defeated Tipu Sultan
History of Tipu Sultan describes that he struggled a lot and fought against the British. Britsih was unable to defeat Tipu without conspiracies, and deceitfulness. Tipu Sultan was vigorous and gaining strength, hence the British were unable to defeat him. Therefore, the British decided to approach the allies of tipu and pay them to join their community. This British plan succeeded and the Tiger of Mysore, Tipu Sultan defeated due to the infidelity of his loyal officers.
Tipu secured help from the Amir of Afghanistan, the Sultan of Turkey, and the main competitor of British, French. Whereas, British alliance Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1790, the third Anglo-Mysore war begun and Tipu was defeated.
Death of Tipu Sultan
The last battle of the Sultan was the end of the Sultan’s Rule. He took help from the French and prepared his force. This act was considered a violation and in 1798 British attacked Mysore. Tipu Sultan was defeated in this battle. In May 1799, he died martyred while fighting in the gateway of Seringapatam.
History of Tipu Sultan is still marked in golden words. The famous lines of Tipu Sultan are:
It is far better to live like a lion for a day then to live like a jackal for hundred years.